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Making accurate decision on profit and loss on crypto currency (make $10,000 with accurate calculation)

What is profit and loss (PandL) and how to calculate it

Profit and Loss refers to the financial gain or loss from buying and selling cryptocurrencies. To calculate it, use various method like the FIFO, LIFO, YTD, and more!

Anyone who has dealt with trading in traditional finance is likely to be aware of profit and loss (PandL). But is PandL in the cryptocurrency world the same? The ability to comprehend terms like mark-to-market (MTM), realized PandL and unrealized PandL will help develop a better understanding of the cryptocurrency a person holds.

Without a well-defined process to get insight into profit or loss, cryptocurrency trading may be overwhelming, and traders may struggle with what they are doing. PandL reflects the change in the value of a trader’s positions over a specific period.

To gain a clearer understanding, let’s examine it in the context of cryptocurrency trading.

Understanding the basics of PandL

PandL in crypto refers to the calculation of the profit or loss made on a cryptocurrency investment or trading position. It is a metric used to evaluate the financial performance of a trader or investor in the crypto market.

To begin, here are some key terms in PandL terminology:


MTM refers to the process of valuing an asset or financial instrument based on its current market price or fair value. For example, in the context of crypto trading, if an investor holds a certain amount of Bitcoin


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, the value of that Bitcoin will fluctuate based on the current market price.

The general formula for calculating PandL is:

Suppose the MTM price for Ether


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today is $1,970, while the MTM price yesterday was $1,950. In this case, the PandL is $20. It indicates a profit of $20. On the contrary, if the MTM price of ETH was $1,980 yesterday, it indicates a loss of $10.

Future value

Future value indicates the value of a digital coin at a future point in time.

For example, if a trader stakes Tron


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worth $1,000 with a 4% yearly reward, how much will the person get back after a year? The answer is $1,040. At the time of staking, the present value will be $1,000, while the future value will be $1,040.

There will be a present value at the point when the trader stakes, but if the person considers the future as a whole, there could be countless future values.

There is a different way to use future value as well. Traders could ask how much to stake to get $1,040 in a year. If they know the present and future values, they could calculate the discount factor. examples:

Realized PandL

Realized PandL is calculated after traders have closed their position (sold the cryptocurrency they hold). Only the executed price of the orders is taken into account in realized PandL, and it has no direct relation to the mark price.

The mark price is the price at which a derivatives contract is valued based on the current market price of the underlying asset rather than the price at which the contract is being traded.

The formula for realized PandL is

An example will help understand how to calculate realized PandL. If the entry price for buying X number of Polkadot


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is $70 and the exit price is $105, the PandL for the period is $35, which refers to a profit of $35. However, if the closing price of the trade was $55, the PandL will be $15, but it will reflect a loss.

Unrealized PandL

Unrealized PandL refers to the profit or loss that is currently held in open positions but has not yet been realized through closing the position. The formula for determining unrealized PandL is:

Donald has purchased ETH contracts with an average entry price of $1,900. The mark price of ETH is currently $1,600. The unrealized PandL for Donald is the difference between the average entry price and the mark price.

Unrealized PandL = $1,900 – $1,600 = $300

How to do PandL calculation

To determine PandL in cryptocurrency, a trader needs to find the difference between the initial cost of acquiring a digital coin and the current market value of the same coin. Various methods to calculate PandL in cryptocurrency are as follows:

First In First Out

The FIFO method requires the seller to use the price of the asset from when it was first bought. Here is the process to calculate PandL using the FIFO method:

1) To settle on the initial cost of the cryptocurrency, multiply the purchase price per unit by the number of units sold.

2) To determine the current market value of the asset disposed of, multiply the current market price per unit by the number of units sold.

3) To find the PnL, deduct the initial cost from the current market value.

Suppose Bob first bought 1 ETH at $1,100 and a few days later bought 1 ETH at $800. A year later, he sold 1 ETH at $1,200. As he had first bought ETH at $1,100, this price will be considered the initial cost. Applying the FIFO method, Bob could calculate PnL as follows:

Bob’s initial cost = (1 ETH x $1,100) = $1,100

Current market value = (1 ETH x $1,200) = $1,200

PandL = $1,200 – $1,100 = $100 (profit)

Last-in, first-out (LIFO) method

The LIFO method requires the seller to use the most recent purchase price of an asset in the calculation. The other aspects are just like the FIFO method. Here is the PandL using the LIFO method using the same example as above:

Bob’s initial cost = (1 ETH x $800) = $800

Current market value = (1 ETH x $1,200) = $1,200

PandL = $1,200 – $800 = $400 (profit)

Weighted average cost method

The weighted average cost method requires traders to determine the average cost of all units of a digital currency in their portfolio to arrive at the initial cost. Here are the steps to calculate PandL using this method:

1) Determine the total cost of all units of the cryptocurrency. Multiply the purchase price per unit for each transaction by the number of units of the asset and add the numbers.

2) To arrive at the weighted average cost per unit of the digital coin, divide the total cost of all units by the number of units.

3) Find the current market value of the cryptocurrency sold. Multiply the current market price per unit by the number of units sold.

4) To determine PandL, subtract the average cost per unit from the current market value.

Suppose Alice bought 1 BTC at $1,500 and a few days later bought 1 BTC at $2,000. She later sold 1 BTC at $2,400. Here is the PandL using the weighted average cost method:

Total cost = (1 BTC x $1,500) + (1 BTC x $2,000) = $3,500

Weighted average cost = $3,500 / 2 BTC = $1,750

Current market value = (1 BTC x $2,400) = $2,400

PandL = $2,400 – $1,750 = $650 (profit)

Profits/losses from opening and closing positions

Analyzing open and closed positions at regular intervals is an efficient way to monitor performance. An initial purchase a person makes in the market is an open position, while selling the cryptocurrency is termed closing the position. If a trader buys 10 DOT, it is an open position. When the trader sells those DOT, the position gets closed.

For example, if a trader bought 10 DOT for $70 and sold them for $100, the person’s PandL would be $30 ($100 – $70). Regular analysis of trades in line with open and closed positions helps a person trade in an organized manner.

How To Make100 Thousand Naira Daily With Kuda App


Kuda referral is back again. Although these offers are not available on the platform before it seems they are running some promotions on their platform which makes them bring these offers to us from kuda you can now earn free on kuda ways to make these happen will be explained below follow up.

Kuda is an app related just like opay for does if you don’t know about it before we will discuss some brief details about it soon. But note that our main aim on the app is to know how to make money from it monthly and likely weekly indeed let’s just say weekly, let go by knowing
what kuda platform and what we can use the app to do.  Opera news Hub

What Is Kuda? 

Kuda is a platform where you can save your money, make bills related online, and transfer money to any bank in Nigeria without any charges although the app is safe, the operate just like our noble opay platform which will make use of too. Opera news Hub

Kuda has related features just like opay was designed and established by an opera company to make some transactions online on the money aspect.

Having known what the kuda app is all about now lets me know how you can make money from it on a daily basis.

How To Earn From Kuda

You can earn from kuda simply by making use of their platform to run some transactions online and earn free N1000 from kuda too if you refer anybody to the app or platform but there are some things to be done before you can get this N1000 to the app view the person you refer to.

How To Earn Free 1000 From Kuda

    1. Firstly All you have to do is to download the app (kuda app).
    2. Get it downloaded from here
    3. After successful download and installation to your device.
    1. Open the app and start running the registration with the app.
    2. By providing the information that will be asked from the app.
    3. SNAP A selfie with an app, and provide your  BVN ( Bank Verification Number) follow by a valid id (driver’s license, Identity card, NIN are recommended valid cards to be used.
    1.  Don’t worry the app is safe. It is a secure platform. They won’t temper your details.
    2. Provide them anything they ask for Use these code RqXUHQxv as your referral code if you want to earn from kuda, For it is mandatory.
    3. After successful registration now deposits money to the app, With Just a minimum amount of N500.
    1. Now you should use the 500 you just deposit to purchase airtime.
    2. Then Boom you can now start earning too from people you refer to.
    3. You and the person you invite to the platform will earn yourself free 1000 once every step are taken as stated.
  1. Make sure you tell the people you are referring to the platform too to follow the same steps or refer them to these posts.

What You Need To Know About Kuda Latest Referral Program

Share #2000 equally with a friend
Get #1000 when a friend signs up with your Kuda referral code, adds a BVN and a valid ID, and buys N500 airtime. Your friend also gets N1000!

Do you all know we don’t deal with fake money? Make a platform alitech ghat you will 100% well review and safe platform to make money online.

How To Copy Refer Code From Kuda App

    • Just open the app slide to more option
    • You will be provided with different kinds of options there.
    • Select the one of Referrals there
  • From there you can copy your refer code and share it with your friends.
  • Get the download link by sharing the app on any social media.

How To Withdraw From Kuda App

You can make your withdrawal to any of your Nigeria bank accounts anytime you wish to withdraw on the kuda app, just keep referring your friends and earn more from kuda, don’t think twice N1000 per refer is not a joke image how much you make If you refer to 10 people.

How To Make Money With palm pay

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Make money on palmpay as well as Earn money online using Palmpay as a Nigerian is a pretty good opportunity. You can earn a lot of cash from the Palmpay App, which is a very good opportunity to make money online if you are a Nigerian.

There are different ways of making money online using Palmpay which include cash backs, coupon, free gifts, completing daily task and the biggest of all the refer and earn program.

In this guide I will be explaining the various means which you can earn money online using Palmpay. Read this guide complete and earn that your urgent 2k.

About the Palmpay Apk

Palmpay is one of the biggest electronic banks in Nigeria with over 10 million registered users. The application was launched to perform the following services such as free transfers to Nigerian banks, payment of bills such as electricity bills, airtime, Cable TV, funding of betting wallets and lots more.

About the Palmpay Referral Program:  Earn money online using Palmpay

Make Money on Palmpay

The Palmpay referral program was designed to reward it customers to make money on palmpay, who will invite friends or recommend people to register the application using their unique link, and completing some few easy tasks.

How it Works

If you refer someone using your unique referral link, you get to receive cash benefit up to 700 naira – 2000 naira depending on the total number of people you have referred.

This program is one of the best ways to earn money online using Palmpay application. I have earned a lot from this program and withdrawal is instant.

How do you register and Earn money online using Palmpay?

If you already have an account with Palmpay you are good to make money on palmpay. But if you are new or you want to start fresh then I will be showing you how to register the Palmpay pay and Earn money online using Palmpay.

  1. Click Here to be taken to the registration page.
  2. After you’ve clicked the link the you are to enter your mobile phone  number which hasn’t been registered before
  3. The you can click on Claim on Benefit, you will be redirected to the app store or playstore depending on your device type
  4. Go ahead to download the Palmpay apk from the store and open It
  5. Open the application input that same number you have used earlier, input the verification code, and fill out your necessary details
  6. Set your “4 digit pin” for authorizing transactions
  7. And then you are good to go.

After completing these steps you are good to make money on palmpay. You will receive a 100 naira airtime coupon which you will use to buy airtime for yourself which is a little gift from Palmpay

Congratulations you have registered the app and you are ready to Earn money online using Palmpay.

How to Accumulate Benefits from the Palmpay application   

You can earn a lot of benefit from Palmpay everyday by being active, you earn cash backs, coupons for airtime, data, TV even as well as for funding betting wallets. Like me, I receive a daily data coupon of 100 naira from Palmpay for free.

Every day you login you get a benefit and also receive 2mb, which would eventually accumulate to be a good amount of data for you.

Palmpay Referral Code:

You start by clicking this link and be redirected to my referral code link which you will us to register.

Note that after every withdrawal your Palmpay referral link is been updated. With this link you can invite your friends and earn money online using the Palmpay which is a good way of making money online.

How much is the Referral?

Once your invitee signs up and tops up airtime using the free 100 naira coupon you get 700 which you can withdraw to your balance instantly. To make money on palmpay isn’t that of a big deal,  just give it a trial.

Palmpay Referral Program Rules

These are some things you should take note of to make money on palmpay and avoid losing your referral benefits.

Make Money on Palmpay
  1. Each of the referral tasks is valid for 1 week. that is every of the generated referral link will only be valid the specified amount of  amount of time
  2. Every of your invitee should complete his/her tasks before the 1 week time elapsed
  3. An invitee must complete verification (KYC) before you will be reward the bonus.
  4. Your invitee must top up airtime
  5. They should sign up with their Full Names and legal names as it appears in their BVN, account number, NIN which they will be using to complete KYC

How to See your Palmpay Referral

On the Home page click on refer and earn you will be taken to the to the page where you will be seeing your current invitees, you current amount made, and also your remaining days left to complete the task.

Steps to Earn money online using Palmpay application

The following is the guiding steps to to Earn money online using Palmpay referral program. Earn up to 7000 naira per day using this program. These are steps I complete in few minutes and make money on palmpay.

STEP 1:  Share your referral Link

Share your link to the person you are referring, he/she should follow the link and input his/her mobile number and then download the Palmpay application.

Make Money on Palmpay step 1

STEP 2: Register the Application

Your invitee should, register the application duly, and fill the necessary information and also create transaction pin (four digit pin).

Make Money on Palmpay step 2

STEP 3: Complete KYC Verification

They should complete using bank account, BVN or NIN, first, before purchasing the airtime using the free airtime voucher given to your invitee.

Make Money on Palmpay step 3

Without completing KYC your reward might be blocked and you will lose everything

STEP 4: Purchase Airtime

Normally the new user gets free 100 naira airtime coupon, you can use that coupon to purchase airtime of 100 and above. It is the last step of claiming your reward. Once your invitee has purchase an airtime, you can go to yyour referral page to see that your bonus has been added

Make Money on Palmpay step 5

STEP 5: Withdraw your Earning

After completing the task above, you will be reward with 700 and asked to withdraw it to your main Palmpay wallet balance. Or you will be asked to invite 2 more users to get up to 2000 naira. Withdraw your earning and enjoy.

Make Money on Palmpay step 5

This is one of the easiest way to Earn money online using Palmpay within few minutes. Remember the more you invite the more you earn.

Can I make money on palmpay app?

It is undoubtful that with the referral program you can make money on Palmpay, at least a not less than 700+ per day

Do I need to deposit or pay for the program to make money on Palmpay?

No the Palmpay program is absolutely free.

Do I have my own referral Link?

Yes everyone has a unique link that, they would use to make money on palmpay. note that it renews every time you make a withdrawal or after 7 days.


this is one of the best and easiest way to to Earn money online using Palmpay, by referring your friends each invite you are paid a whole sum of 700 naira.

Imagine you have registered or referred up to 10 people in a day that is about 7000 naira and almost 50k in a week this means it is a good way to make money on palmpay. Come on what are you waiting for, just go ahead and earn money online using Palmpay. If you love this guide please share with your friends,  If you have any questions please drop it in the comment sections, and get answered immediately.

Also Read; how to make money with opay

How To Make Money Through Flutter wave

Flutterwaves provides many benefits for businesses, and along with these benefits comes the opportunity to make money. However, in order to utilize this opportunity and earn a steady income for yourself, you need to first understand how flutterwave works.

In my last article I explained how flutter wave works, if you haven’t read it, I’ll recommend you to do so before attempting to make money with flutterwave.

Right in this post, we have explained four different ways to make money with flutterwave and how to get started.

Best Ways to Make Money With Flutterwave

Here are the best ways to make money with flutterwave.

Affiliate Marketing 

One of the best ways to make money with Flutterwave is through affiliate marketing. It helps you earn money from your referrals based on commission. Your only job is to recommend these Flutterwave services to potential users with a traceable affiliate code. When any of these users activate and make transactions, you earn commissions while sitting at home.

Isn’t that cool? You keep earning income even while you sleep.

How to begin;

  1. Sign up or Log in to your account.
  2. On the overview section click on “referrals”.
  3. Then click on “copy your referral link”.
  4. Send this link to all business owners you know.

Note: You might need to tell them a little about how flutterwave works for them to be interested in signing up.

Creating a Store for Your Freelance or e-Commerce Business 

This is another good way to make money with flutterwave. Flutterwave store is an easy way to own and manage your e-Commerce business. It provides you with the benefits of having an online business store without creating a website. In essence, you can make more sales.

For example: Let’s say you acquire a maximum of 50 customers monthly through your physical store or personal social media pages. When you create a store on flutterwave, you can get more customers outside your contact lists and visibility. Hence, creating a flutterwave store gives you access to the global market. Even more, it brings businesses online with minimal hassle.

How to begin;

  1. Sign in to your dashboard and select “Store”.
  2. On the store page, click “setup my store”.
  3. Edit the store name to a name you want to use.
  4. Enter your “store description” and “URL” if necessary.
  5. Click complete “Set up” and your store link will be generated and displayed on the dashboard. (You can share this link with your prospective customers and also add it to your social media pages).
  6. Next, add your products by clicking “Add products”.
  7. Fill in the details of your new products. Your product will immediately be displayed on the dashboard.

Using Flutterwave to Receive Payments

Flutterwave provides you with an easy way to receive payments from anywhere in the world with card payments, bank accounts, USSD, and more. You don’t need to worry about losing any sales because of a payment issue. With the flutterwave payment link, you have the opportunity to increase your business income.

How to begin;

  1. In your Flutterwave dashboard, go to the Payment Links page and select “Create Payment Link”.
  2. For a single payment, select “Single Charge” while for a payment plan select “Recurring Charge”.
  3. Fill in details of the payment; if you wish to allow your customers to specify the amount to be paid, leave the “Amount field” empty, otherwise, fill in a specific amount.
  4. Then, select “Create Link” to create the link to your payment page.

The payment link will be on your dashboard. Copy and share the link with your clients for them to make payments using their cards, bank accounts, USSD, etc., as applicable.

Flutterwave as Your Mobile POS

Currently, people in Africa, especially Nigeria are making money with the POS business. Although the business is rampant so getting a physical POS might be a little difficult. But with flutterwave, you can have a mobile POS. The flutterwave mobile performs the function of a cash register and physical POS machine. That is, you can accept payments from your customers, issue receipts, and also keep sales records. In summary, flutterwave mobile turns your mobile phone into your personal POS, online store, and general mobile business headquarter.

How to begin;

  1. Download the app from Play or Apple Store.
  2. Sign in by filling in your details.
  3. Proceed to the home page section and select “POS”.
  4. Select how to want to receive payment. E.g USSD, debit card, and others.
  5. If you selected “Debit/Credit Card”, Scan the “QR code” provided.
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